Top Study Abroad Options After 12th Commerce


Just a couple of decades ago, Indian students who aspired to study abroad looked only towards engineering, medicine, and law. The courses offered abroad were not  just costly but not aligned with our education system here. However, things have changed considerably since then. With the progress of education and availability of various scholarships opportunities & loans, students are now exploring options beyond the traditional favourites. Nowadays, we see many students opting for undergraduate education in Commerce, Accountancy, Management in top universities abroad.


If you are looking for world class education in the field of commerce, accountancy, economics or law, there is a plethora of courses to choose from.


If you seek a program in commerce, there is a whole world of undergraduate degree alternatives. In some countries such as UK, it is mandatory for the applicant to have industry experience at least for a year.


Students can go for professions like economist, investment banking analyst, data analyst, marketing manager, auditor, teacher and many other business, government, and academic jobs, after earning a degree in economics. Some programs may be more theoretical in nature while some can target Applied Economics. Also, some can be completely math-centered while others may not be. Applied economics is a good course to pursue if you are interested in a career as an economist, data analyst, auditor, or investment banking analyst.


Every organization, big or small require accounting services. The core courses in an accounting program could be business, accounting, finance and mathematics. Some universities may require students to complete courses in Computer based applications and/or business and corporate law.


Marketing is at the core of every business. That book you read, the drink you consume, or the movie you watch? They reached you because of marketing efforts by the companies that created the product. In marketing courses, students are taught about advertising, sales promotion, public relations, and direct marketing, as well as efficient communication technologies. Marketing needs a keen insight into buyer behaviour and how people’s expectations from the company.


Management is one of the most sought after courses in the commerce field. In management program you learn basic concepts of essential managerial roles. Some of the subjects you learn are Business law, Financial accounting, Information systems, macroeconomics, microeconomics, Business finance, Business statistics, International business, Managerial accounting and Marketing. You can take up specializations such as global marketing, global human resource management, international accounting and finance corporate finance, , international management, operations and supply chain management and project management.


If number crunching is your forte, pursue a career in Finance. Here you get to learn basic accounting, microeconomics and statistics.

Specializations may follow in the later years of the undergraduate life.


If you love numbers, choose a stream that includes pure mathematical research or teaching field. Other interdisciplinary courses may involve combining mathematics with subjects studied by engineers, architects, computer software engineers, physicists, statisticians, accountants, logicians, actuarial scientists and accountants. Have a go at algebra, calculus, and mathematical statistics.


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Structure of the Higher Educational System in Spain


In Spain, higher education institutions are classified according to whether they organise university or non-university provision. The later are further subdivided into centres which offer advanced vocational training cycles and specialised education institutions

University education 

This type of provision is organized by universities, which may be public or private.

Public universities and private universities are founded pursuant to a specific act passed by the Legislative Assembly of the region where the institution will be located, or an act approved by the Spanish Parliament, at the proposal of the central government and in accordance with the relevant Autonomous Community Council. A report from the General Conference for University Policy is also mandatory.

Public universities are integrated by University Schools, Faculties, Departments, University Institutes for Research, Doctoral Colleges and by other necessary schools or structures for the development of their functions. The requirements for the establishment and the maintenance of these institutions are established by the Government, once a report by the General Conference for University Policy and the Council of Universities has been issued.

University Schoolsand Facultiesare the institutions responsible for the organisation of their studies and in charge of academic, administrative and implementation processes of the regulations that lead to the conferment of the different university degrees. Their creation, modification and abolishment, as for the implementation and abolishment of studies leading to the obtainment of an official university degree and validated nationwide must be accorded with the Autonomous Community to which the university belongs either through the Autonomous Community’s initiative gaining the agreement of the Government Council of the university, or through the university’s own initiative through a proposal of the Government Council, in both cases with a previous favourable report on behalf of the Social Council.

Departments are teaching and research units in charge of coordinating studies of one or more fields of knowledge in one or more university centres according to the teaching schedule of the university. They support teaching and research activities and initiativesof the teaching staff as for exerting all other functions appearing in their statutes. The establishment, modification and abolition of departments correspond to the university, according to its statutes.

Universities may also have university research institutes. Their activity focuses mainly on technical and scientific research and on artistic creation. These centres are also entitled to offer graduate programmes (Master’s degrees or PhDs). University research institutes may belong to more than one university. They can also be the established by public or private organisations by means of collaboration agreements or specific arrangements. Furthermore, universities can create joint research institutes, in cooperation with other public research bodies, with the National Health Service and with public or private non-profit research centres.

Furthermore, universities and public authorities promote the creation of integrated higher education areas, which develop new channels of collaboration between the production sector, universities, vocational training institutions and other dependent bodies, so as to encourage business and scientific innovation. Therefore, an integrated higher vocational area consists of a university campus which incorporates vocational training centres offering higher vocational training, specialised in professional families which are related to the areas of specialisation of university colleges operating in the same campus.

The official regulations which establish the structure of PhD programmes also authorize the creation of Doctoral Colleges, the objective of which is to organise provision at this level into one or more interdisciplinary knowledge branches, which may also include official science-oriented Master programmes, as well as many other types of training activities in the area of research. These colleges may be founded by one or more universities, with the possible participation of other bodies, centres, institutions or national and international entities which carry out R&D activities.

Public universities may also have public or private associated centres offering official study programmes. The association is established by means of an agreement which requires to be endorsed by the relevant regional government, at the proposal of the University Government Council, once the proposal has been positively informed by the University Social Council. Associated centres must be established within the territorial scope of the relevant regional government, or receive approval from the regional government where they are located.

Private universities and university private centres may be created by any individual or legal entity, regarding that they respect the constitutional principles as they are subject to State and Autonomous regulations. University private centres must be integrated into a private university as centres belonging to the university or they must be ascribed to a public or private university.

Private universities elaborate and approve their own regulations for their organisation and functioning. These must respect and guarantee, through a broad participation of the university community, the academic freedom manifested in the academic freedom, research and study.

In order to guarantee the quality of universities and university centres a series of requisites are established to which they must comply with whether they were already in existence or whether they were recently created. From these the Autonomous Communities establish the specific requirements for the universities to establish themselves in their territory. For detailed information on the minimum requirements of university centres see the article on Organisation of Private Education.

Both public and private universities, together with university centres must be registered in the Register of Universities, Centres and Qualifications (RUCT).

In 2013/14, the Spanish university system was integrated by 82 universities, 50 of which were public and 32 private. Six universities (one public and five private) organise distance education. In addition, there are two universities with a special status, since they only provide specialised graduate programmes (Master’s degrees and PhDs).

Higher non-university education 

Higher Vocational Training may be offered in different types of institutions, namely, in secondary education schools, which also organise Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) provision and Bachillerato programmes, in national reference centres and in integrated vocational training centres. For detailed information on these centres see the article on Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure.

Regardless of public or private ownership, these institutions are subject to the same minimum requirements. Among these, the highlighted minimum requirements of the spaces established in the regulation of each qualification and the equipments established by the Educational Authorities in order to achieve the results of each vocational module.

The Act on Education 2006 (LOE) includes the two first-cycle programmes within the Spanish education system as part of higher education, even though they lead to rather different professional and academic qualifications. These two programmes are Bachelor’s degrees and Advanced Vocational Training. They are not equivalent, they are offered in different institutions and they lead to qualifications included in different levels of the Spanish Qualification Framework for Higher Education (MECES):

Bachelor programmes belong to university education, have an academic orientation and are longer than non-university higher provision. They lead to a Bachelor’s degree assigned to level 2 qualifications within the MECES and is defined by the following descriptors, in terms of educational outcomes:

• To have acquired advanced knowledge and proven comprehension of practical, theoretical and methodological aspects of the relevant field of studies, including understanding of the most recent and state-of-the-art breakthroughs in the area.

• To be able to apply knowledge, by means of elaborated procedures and defence of arguments, comprehension and problem-solving abilities, to the solution of problems in complex working or professional specialized environments, which may also require the use of creative and innovative ideas.

• To be able to gather and interpret information and data in order to support conclusions, including, whenever necessary and appropriate, a reflection upon social, scientific or ethical issues related to their area of specialization.

• To be able to handle complex situations or those requiring to devise new solutions, both in the academic and professional world, within the relevant knowledge area.

• To be able to address all kinds of audiences (either specialised or not) and to communicate in a clear and accurate way knowledge, methodologies, ideas, problems and solutions related to the area of specialization.

• To be able to identify professional development needs within the area of studies and professional or working environment, and to organise learning paths autonomously, both in structured and non-structured contexts.

However, the Spanish Qualifications Framework for Higher Education and the organisation of official university education, in order to include some Bachelor degrees in Level 3 (Master’s) of the Framework, were modified in February 2014. The duration of some studies, generally in the field of Health, is longer than that established for Bachelor programmes and they provide access to PhD programmes, either directly or through complementary training.

Advanced Vocational Training belongs to the stage of post-compulsory non-university education and has a clear professional orientation. These programmes lead to a diploma of Higher Technician, included level 1 of the qualification framework (MECES). Advanced Vocational Training qualifications may be defined by the following descriptors, in terms of educational outcomes:

• To apply and assimilate technical knowledge in order to define and develop work procedures autonomously in the relevant professional field. To be able to coordinate and supervise specialised technical work.

• To be able to analyse the necessary information to evaluate and handle expected and unexpected situations, looking for essential, creative and innovative solutions, within the relevant professional area.

• To be able to inform peers, supervisors, clients and subordinates, of knowledge, ideas, skills and operational procedures. • To have acquired the necessary skills to engage in further education autonomously, showing maturity to innovate in the application of these skills and to progress to higher training levels.


Branches of study 

Bachelor’s degrees have a minimum duration of 240 credits of the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS), and are ascribed to one of the following branches of knowledge:

• Arts and Humanities.

• Experimental Sciences.

• Health Sciences.

• Social Sciences and Law.

• Engineering and Architecture.

Admission requirements

The Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport (MECD) regulates the access to university studies. It establishes the general conditions at a national level and at a regional level through the corresponding Educational Authorities, which in turn, are in charge of adapting and developing these rules within the scope of their competences.

University access is guaranteed through the observance of the fundamental rights. Furthermore, admission to university is granted on the basis of equality, merit and ability. In addition, universal accessibility and design are also taken into consideration. The body in charge of ensuring that students access official Bachelor programmes is the General Conference for University Policy. This body is general, objective and universal, equally valid for all Spanish universities and complies with the criteria established by the European Higher Education Area (EHEA).

Access to university education depends on the academic situation of candidates:

1. They may have access to official Bachelor programmes provided they have successfully completed general upper secondary education: • Students holding a Bachillerato certificate who have passed the university entrance examination organised by the education authorities and public universities.

• Students coming from the education systems of the Member States of the European Union (EU), or from other States that have signed international agreements with Spain that are applicable in this regard, on a basis of reciprocity. In this case, they have to meet the requirements established in those countries for students to have access to their universities, under the same conditions as students who have passed the university entrance examination.

2. From this academic year 2014/15, they may have access if they meet the criteria set by universities in their procedures for admission to official Bachelor programmes. Universities establish these procedures, which must include one or several of the following criteria: final grade obtained in the studies completed or in specific modules/subjects; relationship between the curricula of the studies completed and the relevant university degree; additional academic or vocational training and previously taken higher education studies.

These criteria apply to: 

• Students coming from the EU who do not meet the requirements in order to have access to the universities in their countries, or from States that are not members of the EU and that have not concluded international agreements for the recognition of the Bachillerato certificate, on a basis of reciprocity.

• Students holding an Advanced Technician certificate in any specialisation of advanced vocational training, Plastic Arts and Design or equivalent qualifications.

However, there are other academic situations where universities are free to decide whether they apply or not an admission procedure for candidates to have access to these university studies:

• Students holding an official first or second-cycle university degree, corresponding to the EHEA or the previous organisation of university education, or equivalent degree.

• Students with partial studies carried out in Spain or abroad, or students whose degree has not been recognised in Spain but who want to continue studying in a Spanish university. In this case, apart from the criteria the relevant university might establish, students will have to be recognised at least 30 ECTS credits by this university.

• Students who were in a position to have access to university according to the organisation of the Spanish education system prior to the 2013 Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education.

• Students with studies other than those equivalent to the Bachillerato or Advanced Technician certificates, obtained or carried out in a Member State of the EU or in other States that have signed international agreements that are applicable in this regard, on a basis of reciprocity, provided they meet the academic requirements established in that Member State for students to have access to its universities.

3.They may have access if they have passed the relevant specific university entrance examination:

• People aged over 25 who do not hold any qualification to gain access to university education by other means.

• People aged over 40 without a qualification providing access to university education who accredit work or professional experience.

• People aged over 45 without an academic qualification providing access to university education, through an adapted entrance examination.

In those cases in which there is a compulsory entrance examination, each university decides on the location and dates for the sessions, as well as on the registration dates for students and the date when the examination will be held. Universities may exceptionally establish specific knowledge and/or skill evaluations regardless of the original qualification.


Universities enjoy the autonomy to design the curriculum for the programmes and degrees they offer. However, the programmes must be verified by the Council of Universities and receive authorisation from the relevant regional government, once they have been submitted to consultation of the National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation (ANECA) and/or the analogous Agency of the corresponding Autonomous Community. Once the studies have been verified and accredited, the studies must be registered in the Registry of Universities, Centres and Degrees (RUCT) as mandatory requisite to obtain the official validity throughout Spain.

The guidelines to be followed by each university in the design of their study programmes are:

• Each programme must have a workload of at least 60 ECTS credits devoted to basic training, 36 of which have to be linked to some of the areas included in the knowledge branch to which the programme belongs. These areas are further specified into subjects, with a minimum of 6 ECTS credits each, which need to be taken during the first half of the programme.

• The remaining credits to complete the 60 compulsory ones are devoted to basic training and must be earned through basic subjects from the same branch or knowledge or from a different one, or through other areas, provided that they are basic for the initial training of the student or they have a cross-curricular nature.

• In the final stage of the programme students must do Bachelor’s project, which receives between 6 and 60 ECTS credits. The aim of this project is to assess the acquisition of competences associated to the degree.

• Students may receive accreditation of ECTS credits (up to 6) for their participation in a series of activities at university, related to the area of culture, sports, students’ representation, solidarity and cooperation.

In those universities located in regions which have a co-official language, the regional language is the one normally used in university activities, in compliance with the regulations for university education established by each regional government.

Teaching methods 

Universities follow the principle of autonomy to decide on methodology. To be more precise, university departments are the basic bodies in charge of both teaching and research of their respective areas of knowledge. They are responsible for the planning and coordination of the curriculum and of research activity at universities. In practice, teachers are free to make use of the teaching methods and pedagogical resources they consider more appropriate.

In general, teachers employ different teaching methods at university, being lectures the most common practice, although it is becoming more and more common to resort to other types of activities, such as seminars, cooperative work, learning based on problem-solving activities, project-based learning, etc. Practical classes (for example, laboratory or computer practices) are very frequent in experimental science studies.

The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the classroom is quite frequent. Most universities have technology support services for teachers, so as to help them devise multimedia materials and to encourage their use of ICTs. Presentations by means of computers or overhead projectors are also common practice, as well as the use of videos, computer-assisted learning, etc. In addition, teacher/student communication through the Internet or through virtual classrooms, online platforms, virtual spaces for specific subjects, websites, and so on.

Progression of students 

Universities, making use of the autonomy granted to them by legislation, establish the conditions for the promotion of the students, as well as the minimum and maximum periods of permanence of students.

In order to pass a subject, students are allowed to sit examinations for a limited number of times. Students have between four and six attempts depending of the programme or institution. Moreover, they are allowed to take final examinations for the same subject only twice a year.


A main concern for both the Education Authorities and universities is improving the employability of their university graduates. In order to deal with this problem, university education must respond to the following principles:

• To include in their study programmes abilities and skills geared towards innovation, the fostering of creativity, business initiative and entrepreneurship, incorporating them into the different subjects, concepts and cross-curricular competences, in learning methods and in assessment.

• To make proposals for new degrees and educational provision which prepare students for the qualifications required by new employment needs so as to improve employability of citizens in the labour market.

• To promote adaptability to social and economic changes, providing citizens with opportunities for ongoing professional development and extension of university studies; and to increase the possibilities for mobility in education within Spain and in Europe, as well as the effective incorporation of university graduates into the labour market, strengthening the links between universities and the business world, paying special attention to the promotion of competences for entrepreneurship and self-employment.

Collaboration between universities and the productive sector may be articulated on the basis of the following initiatives:

• Creation of technology-based innovation companies.

• Establishment of innovation poles, by means of providing a common physical space for universities and companies in the production sector. • Launching and promotion of programmes to enhance transfer and appreciation of knowledge.

• Creation of consortiums for research and transfer of knowledge.

• Creation of corporate-sponsored university chairs, based on collaboration in research projects, which allow university students to participate and combine their research activity with training opportunities.

In addition, both in the regulations for university education and in the 2010 University Student Statute, there are a series of specific measures aimed at promoting employability of university students, such as:

• Universities offer student mobility programmes through university cooperation agreements. These programmes pay attention to academic training related to the degree in which the student is enrolled, and to other competence areas, such as training for employment. For detailed information on the types of mobility programmes available for university students see the article on Mobility in Higher Education.

• Universities have student information and guidance services available, the aim of which is to provide information and orientation regarding learning itineraries and future professional opportunities, training in cross-curricular competences and design of professional projects, in order to facilitate student employability and insertion in the labour market.

• Universities also offer student guidance and monitoring until they graduate. The law also considers the possibility of degree advisors. These are coordinators or student advisors who provide guidance to students throughout the program, regarding their learning process as well as their professional prospects in the labour market.

• The statute also contemplates the possibility of creating alumni associations for former students. These associations must be registered at universities, and one of their goals is to collaborate actively in providing access to the labour market to university graduates.

For detailed information on the organisation and advisement of university students on the basic structure of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport (MECD) see the article on Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education.

Student assessment 

Universities must verify the knowledge acquired by students, as well as the development of their intellectual training and their academic achievements. In order to do so, it is necessary to establish assessment regulations. Evaluation objectives, tools, procedures, activities and criteria are set up in the syllabi of each programme, and fall under the responsibility of university departments and teachers.

One of the results of the adaptation to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) is the implementation of an assessment system for university education, the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS). The European credit is the unit for academic accreditation, it represents the amount of work that a student must complete in order to attain programme objectives. Each ECTS credit represents between 25 and 30 class hours. In order to obtain the number of ECTS credits assigned to a subject, both in practical or theoretical learning or in any other academic activity, students must pass the exams or assessment procedures established for that area.

The results obtained by students in each subject, which appear in the student’s record, receive a numerical mark from 0 to 10, with a decimal position, which can be followed by a qualitative mark:

• 0 – 4.9: Fail

• 5.0 – 6.9: Pass

• 7.0 – 8.9: Very good

• 9.0 – 10: Excellent

Students may also be awarded an Excellent mark “with Distinction”, when the student has been given a 9.0 or higher. However, the number of students receiving this special mention cannot be higher than 5% of the total enrolled in a subject in an academic year. If this number is lower than 20, only one Excellent with Distinction may be awarded.


On completion of a Bachelor’s degree programme, students receive a Bachelor’s degree in the relevant area of specialisation. The diploma bears the specific name given to the degree in the Registry of Universities, Centres and Degrees (RUCT). The diploma is issued, on behalf of the King o Spain, by the University Vice-Chancellor. It has official validity in all Spanish universities, and qualifies for regulated professional activities, under the conditions established in the relevant official documents.

According with 2010 official regulations for university education, certified professional or working experience may also receive recognition in terms of credits, with validity to obtain an official qualification, as long as the experience is related to the competences inherent to the qualification.

As a result of the process of adaptation to the EHEA, a new procedure has been established, by means of which universities may issue the European Diploma Supplement of official university degrees, upon request of the person concerned, in order to provide information about the level and contents of the programme for which the diploma is issued including information on the external work placement. The aim of the EDS is to guarantee, for mobility purposes, transparency and legibility of knowledge and skills acquired.

The MECD has regulated the recognition of studies among the different courses of study that constitute Higher Education, establishing the relations between the different Higher Education diplomas, as for the validation of ECTS credits, including Bachelor degrees and Higher Technician from Advanced Vocational Training. Universities are responsible for the recognition of official studies accrediting Higher Technician of Advanced Vocational Training, with the effects of allowing students into study programmes leading to the university Bachelor’s degrees.

Branches of study 

Advanced Vocational Training is the last stage of formal vocational education. These programmes lead to specific professional accredited qualifications within the National Catalogue of Vocational Qualifications. For detailed information on the National Catalogue of Vocational Qualifications see the article on Lifelong Learning Strategy.

Advanced Vocational Training is structured in a series of training cycles, organised into vocational modules and classified according to a number of professional families established in the Catalogue:

• Administration and Management

• Arts and Crafts

• Building

• Chemistry

• Commerce and Marketing

• Computer and Communication

• Electricity and Electronics

• Energy and Water

• Extractive Industries

• Farming

• Food Industry

• Glass and Ceramics

• Graphic Arts

• Health

• Hotel and Tourism Industry

• Imaging and Sound

• Installation and Maintenance

• Maritime and Fishery

• Mechanical Production

• Personal Image

• Safety Environment

• Socio-cultural and Community Services

• Textiles, Clothing and Leather/Fur

• Transport and Maintenance of Vehicles

• Physical and Sport Activities

• Wood, Furniture and Cork

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Education in New Zealand


New Zealand has a reputation as a provider of quality education offering excellent study opportunities and support services in a safe learning environment. It is fast becoming a popular choice for international students seeking high quality education away from home.

Copyright: University of Canterbury. Education in New Zealand, International Students in New Zealand

Academic, profession and vocation studies are offered at universities, polytechnics, colleges of education, secondary schools and private training establishments. A number of English Language Institutes and private English Language Schools are also throughout the country.

New Zealand’s national education system is based on the British system. Research indicates New Zealand students are ranked amongst the top in the world academically.

All New Zealand’s international student education providers are required to be signatories to the Code of Practice for the Pastoral Care of International Students. The code is a document introduced in 2002 designed to ensure all signatories provide a high standard of pastoral care to meet the needs of international students studying in New Zealand. See the Ministry of Education Web site to view more information on the code.

English Language Schools

A number of English Language Institutes and private English Language Schools are located throughout the country.

International students in New Zealand are taught in an English speaking environment, where they are required to actively participate in class discussions and activities, with the aim to become fluent and comfortable with the use of everyday English.

View more information on education for international students in New Zealand.

High School/Secondary School

Copyright: Neil Macbeth. Rangi Ruru Girls School. Education in New Zealand, International Students in New Zealand

High school in New Zealand usually begins at 13 years of age beginning at the year nine level. Core subjects are offered during year nine and 10 – English or Maori, Science, Mathematics, Social Studies and Physical Education. Generally a couple of elective subjects are also taken.

To understand the schooling system in New Zealand, the Ministry of Education has published a guide to schooling which looks at what schools teach and how schools are run.

Students begin the National Certificate of Achievement (NCEA) in Year 11, working towards a qualification to gain entry into their tertiary institution of choice.

NCEA is a new national qualification for New Zealand secondary school students. Implemented throughout New Zealand schools in 2002, NCEA is the current path to tertiary education.

Many schools in New Zealand have been experiencing an increase in the number of students that come from a non English speaking background. These students help bring diversity to a school, and add awareness to a school learning environment.


New Zealand has a selection of 8 national universities with a great range of subjects in commerce, science and arts. Specialist subjects are offered at each university.

Most universities offer a foundation year programme to international students designed to provide the necessary preparation before beginning undergraduate study.

Copyright: Waikato Institute of Technology. Education in New Zealand, International Students in New Zealand

View more information on New Zealand’s universities:

  • Auckland University
  • Auckland University of Technology
  • Waikato Univeristy
  • Massey University
  • Victoria University
  • University of Canterbury
  • Lincoln University
  • Otago University


New Zealand Polytechnics and Institutes of Technology give a more hands on approach to learning providing degrees, diplomas and certificate level qualifications.

View more information on New Zealand’s Polytechnics and Institutes of Technology:

Copyright: Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology. Education in New Zealand, International Students in New Zealand

  • The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand
  • Universal College of Learning
  • Northland Polytechnic
  • Waiariki Institute of Technology
  • Manukau Institute of Technology
  • Tai Poutini Polytechnic
  • Tairawhiti Polytech
  • Bay of Plenty Polytechnic
  • Waikato Institute of Technology
  • Western Institute of Technology
  • Whitireia Community Polytechnic
  • Wellington Institute of Technology
  • Eastern Institute of Technology
  • Nelson Marlborough Institute of Technology
  • Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology
  • Otago Polytechnic
  • Southern Institute of Technology

New Zealand is continually seeking to improve the quality of education and opportunities offered to international students studying here. Besides education, New Zealand offers a lifestyle second to none. So why not develop new skills while exploring new cultures and entertainment opportunities?

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The European Coaching Institute becomes International Institute of Coaching


The European Coaching Institute, one of Europe’s leading accreditation organisations for coaches and coach-training providers, is proud to announce a change of name to the International Institute of Coaching.

The European Coaching Institute, one of Europe’s leading accreditation organisations for coaches and coach-training providers, is proud to announce a change of name to the International Institute of Coaching.

On announcing the organisation’s new name, at the official webinar launch Gerard O’Donovan, President, said “I am immensely proud to announce the Institute’s new name, which reflects the massive global expansion which has occurred in the last twelve months. For some time the Institute has been represented in countries far outside Europe and therefore it is appropriate that the name reflect this expansion. This new development is also in line with our Vision to be internationally recognized as the leading governing body in the coaching industry for ethical and responsible coaching and business practices”.

The launch recording and slide show can be viewed at the new style International Institute of Coaching web site

The International Institute of Coaching will continue with its core mission to accredit coach training schools and individual coaches world-wide to elevate the success of the coaching industry by being a role model organisation promoting values such as respect, compassion, inclusiveness and faith in humankind.

The Institute’s members are dedicated to using their coaching and leadership skills to contribute greatly to the creation of an enlightened world where individuals are more conscious by tapping into their real power. They will continue to work tirelessly to ensure all members feel safe at home within the IIC community and empower each other’s success by sharing their skills and knowledge.

Bonhag Consulting joins the Operations Team as the Management division of the IIC.

As a result of these exciting world wide developments, the Volunteer teams are expanding with many new member/volunteer roles being created. Anyone interested in becoming a volunteer should visit.



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8 reasons to Study in Europe

study in europe

What does studying in Europe offer you?

Did you know that over 1.4 million students from around the world came to Europe in 2012 for their higher education… and the numbers are growing every year. With 1000s of world-class universities, research centres and higher education institutions, Europe is the place to be.

Here are 8 good reasons to choose Europe for your higher education:

1. Careers: Shape your future

Want to get ahead in your career? In the QS 2011 Global Employer Survey

2. World-class education: Reach your full potential

World-leading universities, top facilities, inspirational teaching… in Europe, you’re at the centre of an international community with a passion for learning. What makes European universities so strong is the emphasis on creativity, innovation and support – helping you to reach your true potential.

3. Pioneering research: Be the best

Are you an ambitious researcher looking to boost your career? Europe offers you great opportunities. There were 1.58 million full time equivalent researchers in the EU-27 in 2009. Over the next decade, the European Union is actively looking to attract an additional 1 million researchers! Find out more about research jobs, funding and opportunities in Europe.

4. Support and friendship: Feel at home

Europe is a welcoming, friendly place for students from all around the world. Europe’s universities and colleges offer support and social activities to help you feel at home and happy. Europe is also a great place to live… 7 of the world’s 10 happiest countries

Studying in Europe is not just about lectures and libraries, it is also a once-in-a-lifetime chance to discover new countries… and to discover yourself too! From the snowy north to the sun-soaked south, across Europe you will find breath-takingly beautiful landscapes, buzzing cities and vibrant cultures waiting for you.

6. Scholarships and costs: Get value for money

European countries invest in their higher education systems to help make education affordable for students, whilst maintaining high quality standards. Across Europe, tuition fees and living costs compare very well to other study destinations… in fact, in some European countries, study programmes are free of charge! There are lots of scholarships and financial support options available too.

7. Diversity: Study the way you want

The beauty of Europe is that it offers so much choice. With world-class universities, higher education institutions and research institutes, offering 100,000s of Bachelor’s Degree, Master’s Degree and PhD/Doctoral programmes, plus short-term exchange programmes, you can choose the experience that suits you.

8. Languages: Learn in English or another leading global business language

There are 24 official languages in the European Union… but did you know that most countries across Europe offer study programmes in English too? You’ll also find programmes taught in other leading global business languages such as Spanish, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Arabic and more.

Watch our short film to discover more about studying in Europe:

Find out more

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Recent work visa changes in Australia

visa australia

GOOD NEWS! You can still apply for 457 sponsorship up until March 2018. After March, there will be a very similar visa called the Temporary Skill Shortage (TSS) Visa.

In the past few months, the Australian Government announced a lot of different changes in its legislation regarding the working visas in general and the Working visa 457 in particular. In order to see clearer, Go Study gives you a summary of all the changes that will be effective from March 2018. Please be aware that some changes can still occur in the next months.

In this article, we will go through the changes regarding the main work visas and the English certifications.

Please be aware that some changes can still occur in the next months.

Temporary Skills Shortage (TSS) visa

TSS – Medium Term

Quick summary

Max. duration: 4 years

Renewable: YES, onshore

Pathway to permanent residency: YES through ENS subclass 186 – Temporary Residence Transition stream (ENS186TRT)

Age limit: No limit

Employer-sponsored visa: YES

List of basic requirements and facts

  • Occupation must be listed on relevant skilled occupation lists for this subclass
  • Visa duration 2-4 years depending on occupation and contract
  • Business sponsorship approval valid for 1.5-5 years depending on type of business
  • No age limit for worker
  • Registered and lawfully operating business either established or start-up
  • Sufficient funds required for business expenses and employee salaries including foreign worker/s
  • Applicant must have appropriate skills and/or qualifications related to skilled occupation
  • Applicant must have an equivalent English IELTS score of 5 average with a minimum score of 4.5 in each component *an exemption may apply in some cases eg, if you are an eligible passport holder
  • Employer must pay market salary rate for full-time employment, 38 hours per week
  • Salary must not be less than $53,900 + 9.5 % superannuation, overtime additional
  • The employer must provide evidence of training expenses – 1-2% of total payroll for last 12 months or contribution to industry training fund depending on whether business employs Australian citizens or permanent residents. A training forecast may be accepted in some cases
  • The employer must provide evidence of genuine need in most cases – our office will provide examples including detailed guidelines and confirm whether this is required in your case
  • A business plan or organizational chart may be required in some cases
  • Advertising of the position is required in some cases – our office will confirm whether required in your case.
  • Additional information may be required depending on each particular case

TSS – Short Term

Quick summary

Max. duration: 2 years

Renewable: YES, just once

Pathway to permanent residency: YES through ENS subclass 186 – Direct Entry stream (ENS186DE)

Age limit: No limit

Employer-sponsored visa: YES

List of basic requirements and facts

  • Occupation must be listed on relevant skilled occupation lists for this subclass
  • Visa duration 2 years depending on occupation and contract
  • Business sponsorship approval valid for 1.5-5 years depending on type of business
  • No age limit for worker
  • Registered and lawfully operating business either established or start-up
  • Sufficient funds required for business expenses and employee salaries including foreign worker/s
  • Applicant must have appropriate skills and/or qualifications related to skilled occupation
  • Applicant must have an equivalent English IELTS score of 5 average with a minimum score of 4.5 in each component *an exemption may apply in some cases eg, if you are an eligible passport holder
  • Employer must pay market salary rate for full-time employment, 38 hours per week
  • Salary must not be less than $53,900 + 9.5 % superannuation, overtime additional
  • The employer must provide evidence of training expenses – 1-2% of total payroll for last 12 months or contribution to industry training fund depending on whether business employs Australian citizens or permanent residents. A training forecast may be accepted in some cases
  • The employer must provide evidence of genuine need in most cases – our office will provide examples including detailed guidelines and confirm whether this is required in your case
  • A business plan or organizational chart may be required in some cases
  • Advertising of the position is required in some cases – our office will confirm whether required in your case.
  • Additional information may be required depending on each particular case

Process to apply to TSS visa


  1. Standard Business Sponsorship (SBS) application
    Approval required for an employer to sponsor foreign workers. More than one worker can be sponsored. Sponsorship approval will be valid for 1.5-5 years depending on business.
  2. Nomination application
    Employer nomination required for the proposed worker (including family) and skilled occupation.
  3. Visa application
    Personal details of worker required including medical and character information. Worker requires appropriate qualifications and/or skills for nominated skilled occupation as well as relevant English score.

Total processing time: generally 3-6 months

Transition to Employer Sponsored Permanent residency available for specific skilled occupations and for those with at least 2-3 years of experience, other requirements also apply.

Employer Nomination Scheme (ENS) visa – subclass 186

ENS subclass 186 – Temporary Residence Transition stream (ENS186TRT)

The Temporary Residence Transition stream is for subclass 457 visa holders who have worked for at least two out of the three years (before the nomination is made), while holding a subclass 457 visa, in the same occupation with their nominating employer (who is not subject to a labour agreement and who has lodged a valid nomination with us under the Temporary Residence Transition stream), who wants to offer them a permanent position in that occupation.

List of basic requirements and facts

  • Occupation must be listed on relevant skilled occupation list for this subclass
  • Applicant must have held 457 visa or TSS for 2-3 years in nominated occupation
  • Employer must have complied with 457 sponsorship obligations
  • Max age 50
  • Sufficient funds required for business expenses and employee salaries including foreign worker/s
  • Applicant must have appropriate skills and/or qualifications related to skilled occupation
  • Applicant must have an English IELTS score of at least 6 in each band
  • Employer must pay market salary rate for full time employment, 38 hours per week
  • Employer must provide evidence of training expenses – 1-2% of total payroll for last 12 months or contribution to industry training fund depending on whether business employs Australian citizens or permanent residents. A training forecast may be accepted in some cases
  • Additional information may be required depending on each particular case

For regional areas, the RSMS applies. See below

List of basic requirements and facts

  • Occupation must be listed on relevant skilled occupation list for this subclass
  • A 457 or TSS is not required for this option
  • Applicant must have appropriate skills and/or qualifications related to skilled occupation
  • Applicant must prove 3 years of work experience
  • Applicant must obtain positive skills assessment for skilled occupation
  • English IELTS score of 6 is required in each band
  • Max age 45
  • Applicant and employer must declare that employment will last for at least 2 years
  • The employer must pay market salary rate for full-time employment, 38 hours per week
  • The employer must provide evidence of training expenses – 1-2% of total payroll for last 12 months or contribution to industry training fund depending on whether business employs Australian citizens or permanent residents. A training forecast may be accepted in some cases
  • Additional information may be required depending on each particular case
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How I Prepared for My IELTS Language Exam

ielts exam

Hi, my name is Ioana and I am from Romania. I chose to take the IELTS examination as part of the benefits I received after finishing a six-month internship for the British Council, in my home country. I thought it would be a good opportunity to assess my English level and considered the certificate would be a huge plus for my CV as I was planning to work in a multicultural environment. I decided to take the IELTS because I thought it would best match my future interests. Eventually, I did benefit from my English certificate at my job interviews, and now I work as a content editor for an international company.

Registration and deciding on the exam type

Prepare for IELTS English certificate.jpg

As a past intern, British Council Romania took care of the whole registration process and my fees for the exam. All I had to do was fill in the application form and provide two recent passport-size photos.
The normal IELTS registration procedure begins with finding the nearest test centre, filling in the application form and sending it back by email or in person. You can find all the available 1000 test locations worldwide on the official IELTS website. In some centres, you can also register through the online registration system, but you have to talk with the staff from your centre about the payment methods.

It is important to consider carefully the test date that suits you best, taking into account the time you need for the exam preparation. In Bucharest, for example, the British Council offers IELTS tests twice per month, but there are other centres around the world that hold the exam even four times a month. Before registering, you will also need to decide which IELTS exam you want to take, depending on your personal goals, having to choose between the Academic and the General Training tests.

  • If you are interested in enrolling in a university from an English-speaking country or you want to attend an English-taught study programme, the IELTS Academic is better suited for you.
  • The IELTS General Training measures your level of English in everyday contexts and is more appropriate for visa applicants looking to immigrate and find a job in an English-speaking country.

Personally, I was looking to be able to work with my English skills at a more complex level, as a copywriter, editor or even a translator. I, therefore, chose the IELTS Academic, although I did not necessarily plan to study abroad. For the IELTS Academic, you will have more abstract, theoretical subjects, while IELTS General Training features a more applied set of questions and requirements. I think I made the right decision in taking the Academic because it helped me properly evaluate both my reading comprehension and my writing skills.

Preparing for the IELTS

Study for the IELTS English examination.jpg

There are a lot of ways to prepare for the exam, from library materials to a wide range of online resources. You can attend courses that train you for all sections of the IELTS examination, or you can practice on your own if you are a self-taught learner and want to save some money. On the British Council website, for instance, you have access to free resources such as the Road to IELTS test drive that will help you get a general idea about the examination. If you register for IELTS test via your local British Council, you can also get access to 30 more hours of free training.

I set my exam date in such a way that I would have two months available for preparation. To be quite honest, I didn’t work as much on preparation as I had initially planned, although my intention was not to acquire a more in-depth English knowledge, but only to familiarise myself with the IELTS examination. My history with learning English began with watching English cartoons, movies and music channels. Many shows only had Romanian subtitles, so the English words were easy to follow. I studied the language for another 10 years during school, and eventually English became the second language of instruction through my undergraduate and graduate studies. We would read most articles and books in English, and sometimes we had to write the essays and practical papers in English.

For my IELTS preparation, I had access to the audio and printed exam resources at the British Council library in Bucharest – another advantage of my internship. The materials proved very helpful, especially for the reading and listening training. With the writing section is more complicated, as it would probably be useful to ask someone with a better level of English to proofread your texts. However, the learning materials gave me a good idea about the possible subjects, as well as valuable writing tips. The internet is full of examples for the IELTS writing section, so it’s a good idea to spend some time researching them. Check out this example as well. As for the speaking section training, well, I just spoke English as much as I could during the internship, with my colleagues, my friends and doing online exercises.

Before the examination

There is nothing to fear when it comes to the actual examination, as the organising staff tries to make the atmosphere as relaxed and easy-going as possible, which is the standard procedure for international examinations. Your local IELTS centre will send you information well in advance about the location, date and hour of the examination, along with some general rules of conduct. I was only allowed to take inside the exam room my identity card, some pens and pencils and a bottle of water. Read some tips for the day of the IELTS exam.

My exam took place at a hotel in Bucharest, in their big conference room. We were asked to arrive at 8 AM, and we waited in alphabetical order to enter the examination room. The organisers took photos of us on the spot that were added to our language certificate. At 10 o’clock, everybody was ready to start the exam.

Taking the tests

Students taking IELTS English test.jpg

The first day of the examination, I took the listening, reading and writing sections of the exam. I was a bit stressed at the listening exam because I knew each audio was only played once and we did not have headphones. I only used headphones when I practiced at home, so I was not accustomed to hearing the audio samples in the room. However, the dialogues were accessible and I even took some short notes, after which I completed the questions, which I found fairly simple.

Instructions for the reading section are clear and easy to follow. I had some passages from an article about the demographics of a city, with questions requiring short answers, multiple choices or sentence completion. I tried to write as many answers as possible directly on the answer sheet and less on the draft because I did not want to run out of time.

Finally, the writing section had two parts and lasted one hour. The first task was to describe a bar graph, while the second was more demanding, involving some creativity and debating. Again, I tried to write as much as possible directly on the test paper, but only after making a coherent argumentation plan in my mind and on the draft. The bad part was that I finished writing at the last minute and I had no time to check my writing for errors.

At the end, I was scheduled for the speaking examination, which took place at the main British Council centre in Bucharest. There are typically three candidates in the room: one is examined while the others are drafting their answers and preparing for their turn. I passed my examination with a Romanian English teacher – a very relaxed and reassuring lady who told me I don’t need to be nervous, as we were just going to have a friendly discussion. She asked me what were my favourite subjects at the university and why, and about what places I would take a foreigner who wanted to visit Bucharest. The examiner records the whole exam and the speaking sample is sent to the IELTS administration for reviewing.

Receiving my final scores

I received my scores through email, within a couple of weeks, and I was very happy with the overall results. I got 7.0 out of a total possible 9.0. I gained more confidence in my English abilities, but I could also see objectively where I needed to improve my English. The writing tips I had learned during preparation proved very useful even after the examination.

The testing experience was not as stressful as I had expected. I think it was efficiently organised, or maybe it happened so fast that I did not have the time to feel the stress. The confidence boost I received by taking the IELTS helped me in finding a job where I could put my English skills to good use, as an English content writer for an international company in Bucharest.

I encourage others to take the IELTS as well as I was very happy with the professional staff and overall experience, which was challenging but fair. The resources and information provided by the British Council were also very helpful and I never felt I ran out of resources to practice my IELTS exam.

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IELTS Preparation: Understanding the task types

ielts preparation

There is clear evidence that learning the various task types in IELTS is the quickest and most effective way of improving your band score. We recently conducted research on over 100,000 British Council candidates using Road to IELTS (our official IELTS preparation product) to do just this. We found that after using the program for just six hours, candidates’ scores in the Reading module activities improved by, on average, 64%.

Clearly, in six hours there can be no significant change in their level of English; their improvement came from learning how to answer the questions. This can be achieved in a relatively short period of time.

How do I know if I understand the task types?

First, let me ask you some questions:

  • Do you really understand the difference between “Yes”, “No” and “Not Given” in the Reading test?
  • Do you know the kind of questions you should expect in Part 3 of the Speaking test? And do you know how to answer them to gain the maximum number of marks?
  • Do you know which tenses to use when you are describing a graph (Academic), or writing a letter (General Training)?

If the answer to any of these questions is “no”, then you are not yet properly prepared for your IELTS test.

What can I do?

If you do nothing else, you really must understand how the test works. This means becoming familiar with the question types and task types in each of the four skill tests. It will take the stress out of the experience. It will save you time in the test, and give you the best possible chance of achieving the band score you need.

And my advice to you? Start your preparation with Road to IELTS, which describes all the task types and gives you a lot of practice. If you register for IELTS with the British Council, you will get a Last Minute version free of charge. You should also consider subscribing to the full version here. It could make all the difference to your band score.

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Top 50 student accommodation halls in the UK

student in uk

Deciding where to live at university? Check out this rundown of the top 50 student halls in the UK, as reviewed by students

 Making the right choice of where to live at university could make the difference between making life long friends or having your cheese stolen from the fridge. 

Although you cannot be sure which of the above you’ll end up with before you move in, there are other factors to take into account when choosing your university accommodation such as value, location, and sociability.

To help with this, StudentCrowd analysed 10,834 reviews by students and graduates of the halls that they lived in while at university.

The breakdown of the overall score of each of the halls was based on the following criteria (unfortunately number of cheese thieves isn’t one of them – but these are still helpful guidance points):

  • Value for money
  • Location
  • Management
  • Cleanliness
  • Social Space/ Communal Areas
  • Social Activity/ Events
  • WiFi

Students were asked to rate their halls between one to five stars for each of these criteria.

All of the universities in the top 10 are located in the Midlands, north of England and Scotland, with only a handful of universities in London and the south featuring in the top 50 as a whole. Universities in the south that do feature include the University of Reading, the University of Exeter and the University of Bath.

Best university halls in the UK

Ranking Halls/Accommodation University
1 Falkner Eggington Loughborough University
2 St Regulus Hall University of St Andrews
3 Nightingale Hall University of Nottingham
4 Josephine Butler College Durham University
5 McIntosh Hall University of St Andrews
6 John Burnet Hall University of St Andrews
7 Grizedale College Lancaster University
8 Harry French Hall Loughborough University
9 Stephenson Hall University of Sheffield
10 Park Terrace Newcastle University
11 Langwith College University of York
12 University College Durham University
13 St Salvator’s Hall University of St Andrews
14 John Snow College Durham University
15 Stephenson College Durham University
16 James College University of York
17 St Pancras Way University College London
18 Trevelyan College Durham University
19 William Murdoch Aston University
20 St Christopher’s Court University of Derby
21 Wessex Hall University of Reading
22 Holland Hall University of Exeter
23 Chancellors Court Edge Hill University
24 William Morris Loughborough University
25 Furness College Lancaster University
26 Liberty Cambrian Point Cardiff University
27 Yarncliffe Apartments University of Sheffield
28 Derwent College University of York
29 The Quads University of Bath
30 Norfolk Terrace University of East Anglia
31 Telford Loughborough University
32 Lafrowda University of Exeter
33 Cripps Hall University of Nottingham
34 County College Lancaster University
35 Rootes University of Warwick
36 Froggatt Apartments University of Sheffield
37 Hatfield College Durham University
38 New Bridge Street Northumbria University
39 Park Court University of Lincoln
40 Gowar Halls Royal Holloway, University of London
41 Denmark Road University of Manchester
42 Queen’s Road Student Village University of Winchester
43 Royce Loughborough University
44 Fylde College Lancaster University
45 Norwood House University of Bath
46 The Meadows University of Essex
47 Van Mildert College Durham University
48 Bluebell University of Warwick
49 Fferm Penglais Aberystwyth University
50 Keynes College University of Kent
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Best universities in Ireland 2018

ireland universities

Explore the best universities in Ireland based on data collected by Times Higher Education

Despite a moderate island population of roughly five million, there are a number of excellent higher learning institutions in the Republic of Ireland. These are the best universities in the Republic of Ireland based on the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2018. 

Three of the country’s best universities are based in the greater area of Dublin, Ireland’s capital and largest city. Culturally, Dublin is well-known for being the setting of the novels of James Joyce. Meanwhile, the Guinness brewery at St. James’ gate street was the original location for the brewing of Ireland’s best-known stout in 1759, and is now a popular tourist attraction.

The ancient language of Irish Gaelic is still spoken in places on the “Emerald Isle”, and continues to be taught in schools. However, English is more commonly used by the majority of Irish residents, and virtually every university course is taught in the language.

Top 5 universities in Ireland

1. Trinity College Dublin

Established in 1592, Trinity College Dublin is the oldest university in the Republic of Ireland. It was founded as an Irish equivalent to the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, and retains its reputation as a research centred university.

Trinity College Dublin is located in central Dublin near the River Laffey, and is a mere stone’s throw away from the Irish Houses of Parliament, making the university ideal for aspiring political science students. Although Trinity is not structured in a collegiate like Oxbridge, the university offers a huge range of courses from acting to zoology. Trinity also support its students through assigning each student a personal tutor, and providing a campus-based Careers Advisory Service.

Among the university’s alumni is mathematician William Rowan Hamilton, who has a research institute at Trinity named in his honour. Author of Dracula, Bram Stoker, and Nobel Peace Prize recipient Mairead Maguire are other well-known graduates.

2. National University of Ireland, Galway

Galway is a small city located on the western coast, among the green countryside. But don’t let that fool you into thinking the city is a quiet rural outpost, for lively events such as the annual Pride festival make Galway a social hub ideal for students. It is also a 2020 European Capital of Culture.

The university was recently awarded significant investment and now has a student centre, a building for the study of human biology and a centre for drama, theatre and performance.

Anyone with an interest in linguistics may be well suited to Galway’s School of Languages, Literatures and Cultures which contains disciplines including French, German and Classical. The school is also the location of the UNESCO-recognised archive of historical Irish Gaelic documents, studied under Celtic Civilisation.

The oldest student society at Galway is the literary and debating society, which was founded in 1846, just a year after the university opened.

3. Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) has been a renowned surgical college since it was granted a royal charter in 1784, and now serves as Ireland’s largest medical school. Although a private institution, RCSI offers a number of scholarships for both Irish and international students in PhD and master’s programmes. There are multiple EU and Non-EU student admission pathways for undergraduate and postgraduate programmes.

RCSI has expanded to offer postgraduate courses in bereavement studies and healthcare technologies, as well as offering five-year undergraduate degree courses in pharmacy and four-year courses in physiotherapy. This is among many other science and health care related undergraduate and postgraduate programmes.

Many renowned figures from the worlds of surgical and medical development have received their degrees at RCSI. One such example is Nada Haffadh, who became Bahrain’s first female minster after being appointed health minister in 2004. Another is Lord Ara Darzi, a pioneer in the fields of surgical robotics and minimally invasive surgery.

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